Chloroquine was first discovered in the 1930s in Germany and began to be widely used as an anti-malaria post-World War II, in the late 1940s. However, resistance to the drug also rapidly emerged, with the first cases of not being cured by administration of chloroquine being reported in the 1950s. Plaquenil and skin rashes Plaquenil retinal toxicity oct Although chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum predominates in Africa, it is found in combination with chloroquine-sensitive P. vivax malaria in South America and Asia. Resistance of P. vivax to chloroquine has been confirmed only in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. For destinations where any chloroquine-resistant malaria is present, in addition. Chloroquine phosphate or hydroxychloroquine sulfate Plaquenil can be used for prevention of malaria only in destinations where chloroquine resistance is not present see Chapter 2, Yellow Fever Vaccine & Malaria Prophylaxis Information, by Country. Prophylaxis should begin 1–2 weeks before travel to malarious areas. In India, chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum malaria has been observed with increasing frequency across the country in recent years. Considering this, the Government of India has recommended the combination of artesunate and Sulfa-Pyrimethamine as the treatment of choice for P. falciparum and mixed infections all across the country.21 Nowadays, other drugs, and notably ones containing artemisinin-based compounds, are preferentially used to treat uncomplicated malaria and especially in areas where chloroquine resistance is known to occur. Since then, resistance has spread rapidly (since obviously it is beneficial to the parasite to be resistant, so various mutations conferring this protection have arisen multiple times in different areas in the world and also been passed on preferentially to new generations of malaria parasites), and now chloroquine resistant are found in multiple locations in south-east Asia, such as Myanmar and India, as well as from Guyana in South America. Chloroquine resistant malaria in india WHO Monitoring antimalarial drug resistance in India via., Malaria - Chapter 4 - 2020 Yellow Book Travelers' Health. Chloroquine resistance indiaChloroquine therapeutic classPlaquenil appetiteDoes plaquenil reduce rheumatoid factor in patiences with sjogrens Chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum first developed independently in three to four areas in Southeast Asia, Oceania, and South America in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Since then, chloroquine resistance has spread to nearly all areas of the world where falciparum malaria is transmitted. CDC - Malaria - Malaria Worldwide - How Can Malaria Cases.. Drug Resistance – Malaria Site. CDC - Malaria - Travelers - Malaria Information and Prophylaxis, by Country. Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine was first reported in 1973 and increases in antimalarial resistance, along with rapid urbanisation and labour migration, complicated the challenge that India’s large geographical area and population size already pose for malaria control. Although several institutions have done drug-resistance monitoring in India, a complete analysis of countrywide data across institutions does not exist. DRUG RESISTANT MALARIA Chloroquine resistance Chloroquine is ineffective in almost all malaria endemic countries In India chloroquine resistance was first detected in 1973 in Assam. Severe in northeast and southeastern regions of India with high morbidity and mortality. Variants of the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter pfcrt gene have been shown to be responsible for conferring resistance to the commonly used drug chloroquine. In particular, an amino acid mutation, K76T, was shown to have a strong positive correlation with the chloroquine-resistant varieties of malaria parasites.